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Diffusion welding of copper to aluminum has been carried out in vacuum. The microstructure of the bonding zone was examined in detail with several metallographic methods to make clear the important factors which affect the mechanical properties of the joint. Results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) An intermetallic compound layer was observed which could be devided into characteristic region I, II, and III. The intermetallic compounds of θ and γ2 formed in I and III region, respectively. The hardness of II region is the highest of the regions. 2) The growth of the intermetallic compound layer is considered to be controlled by the atomic diffusion and the increase in the intimate contact area between the faying surfaces. The diffusion process became more important with the increase in welding temperature and time. 3) At shorter welding time, the tensile strength of joints increased with the rise of welding temperature, time, and pressure. This stage is considered to be a process where the intimate contact between the faying surfaces was developed. 4) At longer welding time, the tensile strength of joints approached to a saturated value (2.3 kg/mm2) much lower than that of aluminum base metal. This tendency was observed for the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer greater than 15~20 μm. In this case, fracture was developed in the intermetallic compound layer, but not at the welding interface. The strength of these joints is considered to be controlled by the intermetallic compound layer. 5) Oxide film of aluminum delayed the real metallic contact between the faying surfaces at shorter welding time.